Regan K, Raje S, Saravanamuthu C, Payne PRO. Conceptual Knowledge Discovery in Databases for Drug Combinations Predictions in Malignant Melanoma. Stud Health Technol Inform 2015;216:663-7.Abstract
The worldwide incidence of melanoma is rising faster than any other cancer, and prognosis for patients with metastatic disease is poor. Current targeted therapies are limited in their durability and/or effect size in certain patient populations due to acquired mechanisms of resistance. Thus, the development of synergistic combinatorial treatment regimens holds great promise to improve patient outcomes. We have previously shown that a model for in-silico knowledge discovery, Translational Ontology-anchored Knowledge Discovery Engine (TOKEn), is able to generate valid relationships between bimolecular and clinical phenotypes. In this study, we have aggregated observational and canonical knowledge consisting of melanoma-related biomolecular entities and targeted therapeutics in a computationally tractable model. We demonstrate here that the explicit linkage of therapeutic modalities with biomolecular underpinnings of melanoma utilizing the TOKEn pipeline yield a set of informed relationships that have the potential to generate combination therapy strategies.
Wack M, Puymirat E, Ranque B, Georgin-Lavialle S, Pierre I, Tanguy A, Ackermann F, Mallet C, Pavie J, Boultache H, Durieux P, Avillach P. Evaluating the Impact of Computerized Provider Order Entry on Medical Students Training at Bedside: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS One 2015;10(9):e0138094.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) at the bedside on medical students training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized cross-controlled educational trial on medical students during two clerkship rotations in three departments, assessing the impact of the use of CPOE on their ability to place adequate monitoring and therapeutic orders using a written test before and after each rotation. Students' satisfaction with their practice and the order placement system was surveyed. A multivariate mixed model was used to take individual students and chief resident (CR) effects into account. Factorial analysis was applied on the satisfaction questionnaire to identify dimensions, and scores were compared on these dimensions. RESULTS: Thirty-six students show no better progress (beginning and final test means = 69.87 and 80.98 points out of 176 for the control group, 64.60 and 78.11 for the CPOE group, p = 0.556) during their rotation in either group, even after adjusting for each student and CR, but show a better satisfaction with patient care and greater involvement in the medical team in the CPOE group (p = 0.035*). Both groups have a favorable opinion regarding CPOE as an educational tool, especially because of the order reviewing by the supervisor. CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized controlled trial assessing the performance of CPOE in both the progress in prescriptions ability and satisfaction of the students. The absence of effect on the medical skills must be weighted by the small time scale and low sample size. However, students are more satisfied when using CPOE rather than usual training.
Khanafer N, Neuraz A, Bénet T, Cour M, Persat F, Labussière H, Argaud L, Michallet M, Vanhems P. Acute graft-versus-host disease, invasive aspergillosis and Clostridium difficile colitis after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: A complex network of causalities and a challenge for prevention. Anaerobe 2015;33:98-100.Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a known risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA), but remains poorly studied in relation to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We report a case of a 58-years-old patient who developed an IA within a protected room, CDI and GVHD after allogeneic allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Factors associated with this complex condition in patients receiving allogeneic PBSCT need to be identified.
Grammatico-Guillon L, Gras G, Hassen-Khodja C, Maakaroun Z, Bastides F, Barin F, Bernard L. Comment on: Persistence and adherence to single-tablet regimens in HIV treatment: a cohort study from the French National Healthcare Insurance Database. J Antimicrob Chemother 2015;
Bouzillé G, Sylvestre E, Campillo-Gimenez B, Renault E, Ledieu T, Delamarre D, Cuggia M. An Integrated Workflow For Secondary Use of Patient Data for Clinical Research. Stud Health Technol Inform 2015;216:913.Abstract
This work proposes an integrated workflow for secondary use of medical data to serve feasibility studies, and the prescreening and monitoring of research studies. All research issues are initially addressed by the Clinical Research Office through a research portal and subsequently redirected to relevant experts in the determined field of concentration. For secondary use of data, the workflow is then based on the clinical data warehouse of the hospital. A datamart with potentially eligible research candidates is constructed. Datamarts can either produce aggregated data, de-identified data, or identified data, according to the kind of study being treated. In conclusion, integrating the secondary use of data process into a general research workflow allows visibility of information technologies and improves the accessability of clinical data.
Kothari CR, Payne PRO. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research. Stud Health Technol Inform 2015;216:1071.Abstract
In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.
Neuraz A, Guérin C, Payet C, Polazzi S, Aubrun F, Dailler F, Lehot J-J, Piriou V, Neidecker J, Rimmelé T, Schott A-M, Duclos A. Patient Mortality Is Associated With Staff Resources and Workload in the ICU: A Multicenter Observational Study. Crit Care Med 2015;43(8):1587-94.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Matching healthcare staff resources to patient needs in the ICU is a key factor for quality of care. We aimed to assess the impact of the staffing-to-patient ratio and workload on ICU mortality. DESIGN: We performed a multicenter longitudinal study using routinely collected hospital data. SETTING: Information pertaining to every patient in eight ICUs from four university hospitals from January to December 2013 was analyzed. PATIENTS: A total of 5,718 inpatient stays were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We used a shift-by-shift varying measure of the patient-to-caregiver ratio in combination with workload to establish their relationships with ICU mortality over time, excluding patients with decision to forego life-sustaining therapy. Using a multilevel Poisson regression, we quantified ICU mortality-relative risk, adjusted for patient turnover, severity, and staffing levels. The risk of death was increased by 3.5 (95% CI, 1.3-9.1) when the patient-to-nurse ratio was greater than 2.5, and it was increased by 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-3.2) when the patient-to-physician ratio exceeded 14. The highest ratios occurred more frequently during the weekend for nurse staffing and during the night for physicians (p < 0.001). High patient turnover (adjusted relative risk, 5.6 [2.0-15.0]) and the volume of life-sustaining procedures performed by staff (adjusted relative risk, 5.9 [4.3-7.9]) were also associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes evidence-based thresholds for patient-to-caregiver ratios, above which patient safety may be endangered in the ICU. Real-time monitoring of staffing levels and workload is feasible for adjusting caregivers' resources to patients' needs.
Fleurier A, Pelatan C, Willot S, Ginies J-L, Breton E, Bridoux L, Segura J-F, Chaillou E, Jobert A, Darviot E, Cagnard B, Delaperriere N, Grimal I, Carre E, Wagner A-C, Sylvestre E, Dabadie A. Vaccination coverage of children with inflammatory bowel disease after an awareness campaign on the risk of infection. Dig Liver Dis 2015;47(6):460-4.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Children with inflammatory bowel disease are at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases mostly due to immunosuppressive drugs. AIM: To evaluate coverage after an awareness campaign informing patients, their parents and general practitioner about the vaccination schedule. METHODS: Vaccination coverage was firstly evaluated and followed by an awareness campaign on the risk of infection via postal mail. The trial is a case-control study on the same patients before and after the awareness campaign. Overall, 92 children were included. A questionnaire was then completed during a routine appointment to collect data including age at diagnosis, age at data collection, treatment history, and vaccination status. RESULTS: Vaccination rates significantly increased for vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis (92% vs. 100%), Haemophilus influenzae (88% vs. 98%), hepatitis B (52% vs. 71%), pneumococcus (36% vs. 57%), and meningococcus C (17% vs. 41%) (p<0.05). Children who were older at diagnosis were 1.26 times more likely to be up-to-date with a minimum vaccination schedule (diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis, pertussis, H. influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella, tuberculosis) (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Informing inflammatory bowel disease patients, their parents and general practitioner about the vaccination schedule via postal mail is easy, inexpensive, reproducible, and increases vaccination coverage. This method reinforces information on the risk of infection during routine visits.
Faivre J-C, Agopiantz M, Loeb E, Cassinari K, Wack M, Catoire P, Braun M, Thilly N, Coudane H. [Evaluation of the theoretical teaching of postgraduate medical students in France]. Rev Med Interne 2015;Abstract
OBJECTIVES: In France, medical students regularly complain about the shortcomings of their theoretical training and the necessity of its adaptation to better fit the needs of students. The goal was to evaluate the theoretical teaching practices in postgraduate medical studies by: 1) collecting data from medical students in different medical faculties in France; 2) comparing this data with expected practices when it is possible; 3) and proposing several lines of improvement. METHODS: A survey of theoretical practices in the 3rd cycle of medical studies was conducted by self-administered questionnaires which were free of charge, anonymous, and administered electronically from July 3 to October 31, 2013 to all medical students in France. RESULTS: National, inter-regional, regional and field internship educational content was absent in respectively 50.5%, 42.8%, 26.0% and 30.2% of cases. Medical students follow complementary training due to insufficient DES and/or DESC 2 training in 43.7% of cases or as part of a professional project in 54.9% of cases. The knowledge sought by medical students concerns the following crosscutting topics: career development (58.9%), practice management (50.7%), medical English (50.4%) and their specialty organization (49.9%). Fifty-four point one percent would like to be evaluated on their theoretical training on an annual basis. CONCLUSION: The results of this first national survey give insights into the theoretical teaching conditions in postgraduate medical education in France and the aspirations of medical students.
Girardeau Y, Trivin C, Durieux P, Le Beller C, Louet Agnes LL, Neuraz A, Degoulet P, Avillach P. Detection of Drug-Drug Interactions Inducing Acute Kidney Injury by Electronic Health Records Mining. Drug Safety 2015;Abstract


While risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well documented adverse effect of some drugs, few studies have assessed the relationship between drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and AKI. Our objective was to develop an algorithm capable of detecting potential signals on this relationship by retrospectively mining data from electronic health records.


Data were extracted from the clinical data warehouse (CDW) of the Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP). AKI was defined as the first level of the RIFLE criteria, that is, an increase ≥50 % of creatinine basis. Algorithm accuracy was tested on 20 single drugs, 10 nephrotoxic and 10 non-nephrotoxic. We then tested 45 pairs of non-nephrotoxic drugs, among the most prescribed at our hospital and representing distinct pharmacological classes for DDIs.


Sensitivity and specificity were 50 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 23.66-76.34] and 90 % (95 % CI 59.58-98.21), respectively, for single drugs. Our algorithm confirmed a previously identified signal concerning clarithromycin and calcium-channel blockers (unadjusted odds ratio (ORu) 2.92; 95 % CI 1.11-7.69, p = 0.04). Among the 45 drug pairs investigated, we identified a signal concerning 55 patients in association with bromazepam and hydroxyzine (ORu 1.66; 95 % CI 1.23-2.23). This signal was not confirmed after a chart review. Even so, AKI and co-prescription were confirmed for 96 % (95 % CI 88-99) and 88 % (95 % CI 76-94) of these patients, respectively.


Data mining techniques on CDW can foster the detection of adverse drug reactions when drugs are used alone or in combination.

Doshi-Velez F, Avillach P, Palmer N, Bousvaros A, Ge Y, Fox K, Steinberg G, Spettell C, Juster I, Kohane I. Prevalence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Patience with Autism Spectrum Disorders [Internet]. Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2015; Publisher's VersionAbstract

Background: The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which has not been well described previously.

Methods: The rates of IBD among patients with and without ASD were measured in 4 study populations with distinct modes of ascertainment: a health care benefits company, 2 pediatric tertiary care centers, and a national ASD repository. The rates of IBD (established through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes) were compared with respective controls and combined using a Stouffer meta-analysis. Clinical charts were also reviewed for IBD among patients with ICD-9-CM codes for both IBD and ASD at one of the pediatric tertiary care centers. This expert-verified rate was compared with the rate in the repository study population (where IBD diagnoses were established by expert review) and in nationally reported rates for pediatric IBD.

Results: In all of case-control study populations, the rates of IBD-related ICD-9-CM codes for patients with ASD were significantly higher than that of their respective controls (Stouffer meta-analysis, P < 0.001). Expert-verified rates of IBD among patients with ASD were 7 of 2728 patients in one study population and 16 of 7201 in a second study population. The age-adjusted prevalence of IBD among patients with ASD was higher than their respective controls and nationally reported rates of pediatric IBD.

Conclusions: Across each population with different kinds of ascertainment, there was a consistent and statistically significant increased prevalance of IBD in patients with ASD than their respective controls and nationally reported rates for pediatric IBD.

Canuel V, Rance B, Avillach P, Degoulet P, Burgun A. Translational research platforms integrating clinical and omics data: a review of publicly available solutions. Brief Bioinform 2015;16(2):280-90.Abstract
The rise of personalized medicine and the availability of high-throughput molecular analyses in the context of clinical care have increased the need for adequate tools for translational researchers to manage and explore these data. We reviewed the biomedical literature for translational platforms allowing the management and exploration of clinical and omics data, and identified seven platforms: BRISK, caTRIP, cBio Cancer Portal, G-DOC, iCOD, iDASH and tranSMART. We analyzed these platforms along seven major axes. (1) The community axis regrouped information regarding initiators and funders of the project, as well as availability status and references. (2) We regrouped under the information content axis the nature of the clinical and omics data handled by each system. (3) The privacy management environment axis encompassed functionalities allowing control over data privacy. (4) In the analysis support axis, we detailed the analytical and statistical tools provided by the platforms. We also explored (5) interoperability support and (6) system requirements. The final axis (7) platform support listed the availability of documentation and installation procedures. A large heterogeneity was observed in regard to the capability to manage phenotype information in addition to omics data, their security and interoperability features. The analytical and visualization features strongly depend on the considered platform. Similarly, the availability of the systems is variable. This review aims at providing the reader with the background to choose the platform best suited to their needs. To conclude, we discuss the desiderata for optimal translational research platforms, in terms of privacy, interoperability and technical features.
Avillach P, Kerdelhué G, Devos P, Maisonneuve H, Darmoni SJ. Limiting a Medline/PubMed query to the "best" articles using the JCR relative impact factor. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2014;62(6):361-5.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Medline/PubMed is the most frequently used medical bibliographic research database. The aim of this study was to propose a new generic method to limit any Medline/PubMed query based on the relative impact factor and the A & B categories of the SIGAPS score. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The entire PubMed corpus was used for the feasibility study, then ten frequent diseases in terms of PubMed indexing and the citations of four Nobel prize winners. The relative impact factor (RIF) was calculated by medical specialty defined in Journal Citation Reports. The two queries, which included all the journals in category A (or A OR B), were added to any Medline/PubMed query as a central point of the feasibility study. RESULTS: Limitation using the SIGAPS category A was larger than the when using the Core Clinical Journals (CCJ): 15.65% of PubMed corpus vs 8.64% for CCJ. The response time of this limit applied to the entire PubMed corpus was less than two seconds. For five diseases out of ten, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than with the CCJ. For the four Nobel prize winners, limiting the citations with the RIF was more effective than the CCJ. CONCLUSION: The feasibility study to apply a new filter based on the relative impact factor on any Medline/PubMed query was positive.

Hassen-Khodja C, Gras G, Grammatico-Guillon L, Dupuy C, Gomez J-F, Freslon L, Dailloux J-F, Soufflet A, Bernard L. Hospital and ambulatory management, and compliance to treatment in HIV infection: regional health insurance agency analysis. Med Mal Infect 2014;44(9):423-8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We had for objective to study HIV management (hospital, ambulatory, and mixed) and assess compliance with health insurance database. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective study using the French Social Security (CPAM) database. The inclusion criteria were: age>18years of age, at least 2 prescriptions of antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-five patients were included: extra-hospital (12), hospital (162), mixed (401). The prescriptions were exclusively hospital issued for 76.2% of the patients. Among the mixed group patients, 91% of treatments were delivered at least once in the community, and 45.6% of biological tests were performed in private laboratories at least once. The sex ratio (2.1 vs. 1.3), the number of patients having switched antiretroviral therapy (36.7% vs. 27.8%), and the frequency of biological tests (3.1 vs. 2.6) were significantly higher in the mixed group compared to the hospital group. The mean compliance was 90% in the hospital group and 91.8% in the mixed group. The compliance was<80% for 104 patients (21.8%). Patients with≥80% compliance were older (46.1years of age vs. 42.7years of age), with more frequent biological tests (3 per year vs. 2.5 per year), and more frequent switches in treatment (35.4% vs. 26.0%). CONCLUSION: Prescriptions of ARV were almost exclusively hospital issued. Their dispensation and biological tests were split between hospital and extra-hospital settings. Most patients demonstrated an optimal compliance. The CPAM database allows describing HIV management and assessing compliance.
Avillach P, Salvo F, Thiessard F, Miremont-Salamé G, Fourrier-Reglat A, Haramburu F, Bégaud B, Moore N, Pariente A. Pilot evaluation of an automated method to decrease false-positive signals induced by co-prescriptions in spontaneous reporting databases. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014;23(2):186-94.Abstract
PURPOSE: To test an automated method to decrease the number of false-positive (FP) signals of disproportionate reportings (SDRs) generated by co-prescription. METHODS: Automated backward stepwise removal of reports concerning the drug associated with the highest ranked SDR for an event was tested for gastric and oesophageal haemorrhages (GOH), central nervous system haemorrhages and cerebrovascular accidents (CNSH), ischaemic coronary artery disorders and muscle pains (MP) using the reporting odds ratio in the French spontaneous reporting research database. After ranking SDRs detected in the complete dataset on the lower limit of the reporting odds ratio 95% confidence interval, reports concerning the drug with the highest ranked SDR were removed. In the dataset thus generated, SDRs were again identified, ranked and reports related to the drug involved in the newly highest ranked SDR removed. The process was repeated until no signal was detected. Initially detected SDRs eliminated using this technique were assessed regarding the summary of products characteristics and the literature to determine their FP nature. RESULTS: Seventeen SDRs were successively eliminated for GOH, 37 for CNSH, 15 for ischaemic coronary artery disorders, and 36 for MP. Four were FP for GOH, 29 for CNSH, 7 for ACI and none were FP for MP. The positive predictive value of the backward stepwise removal procedure in identifying FP SDRs ranged from 0% (MP) to 78.4% (CNSH). CONCLUSIONS: Although further adjustment is needed to improve the method presented herein, our results suggest that numerous FP signals because of co-prescription bias could be eliminated using an automated method.
Planche V, Georgin-Lavialle S, Avillach P, Ranque B, Pavie J, Caruba T, Darnige L, Pouchot J. Etiologies and diagnostic work-up of extreme macrocytosis defined by an erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume over 130°fL: A study of 109 patients. Am J Hematol 2014;89(6):665-6.
Riou C, Fresson J, Serre JL, Avillach P, Leneveut L, Quantin C. Guide to good practices to ensure privacy protection in secondary use of medical records. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2014;62(3):207-14.
Daugherty SE, Wahba S, Fleurence R. Patient-powered research networks: building capacity for conducting patient-centered clinical outcomes research. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2014;21(4):583-6.Abstract
The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) recently launched PCORnet to establish a single inter-operable multicenter data research network that will support observational research and randomized clinical trials. This paper provides an overview of the patient-powered research networks (PPRNs), networks of patient organizations focused on a particular health condition that are interested in sharing health information and engaging in research. PPRNs will build on their foundation of trust within the patient communities and draw on their expertise, working with participants to identify true patient-centered outcomes and direct a patient-centered research agenda. The PPRNs will overcome common challenges including enrolling a diverse and representative patient population; engaging patients in governance; designing the data infrastructure; sharing data securely while protecting privacy; prioritizing research questions; scaling small networks into a larger network; and identifying pathways to sustainability. PCORnet will be the first distributed research network to bring PCOR to national scale.
Ferrajolo C, Coloma PM, Verhamme KMC, Schuemie MJ, de Bie S, Gini R, Herings R, Mazzaglia G, Picelli G, Giaquinto C, Scotti L, Avillach P, Pedersen L, Rossi F, Capuano A, van der Lei J, Trifiró G, Sturkenboom MCJM. Signal detection of potentially drug-induced acute liver injury in children using a multi-country healthcare database network. Drug Saf 2014;37(2):99-108.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Data mining in spontaneous reporting databases has shown that drug-induced liver injury is infrequently reported in children. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to (i) identify drugs potentially associated with acute liver injury (ALI) in children and adolescents using electronic healthcare record (EHR) data; and (ii) to evaluate the significance and novelty of these associations. METHODS: We identified potential cases of ALI during exposure to any prescribed/dispensed drug for individuals <18 years old from the EU-ADR network, which includes seven databases from three countries, covering the years 1996-2010. Several new methods for signal detection were applied to identify all statistically significant associations between drugs and ALI. A drug was considered statistically significantly associated with ALI, using all other time as a reference category, if the 95% CI lower band of the relative risk was >1 and in the presence of at least three exposed cases of ALI. Potentially new signals were distinguished from already known associations concerning ALI (whether in adults and/or in the paediatric population) through manual review of published literature and drug product labels. RESULTS: The study population comprised 4,838,146 individuals aged <18 years, who contributed an overall 25,575,132 person-years of follow-up. Within this population, we identified 1,015 potential cases of ALI. Overall, 20 positive drug-ALI associations were detected. The associations between ALI and domperidone, flunisolide and human insulin were considered as potentially new signals. Citalopram and cetirizine have been previously described as hepatotoxic in adults but not in children, while all remaining associations were already known in both adults and children. CONCLUSIONS: Data mining of multiple EHR databases for signal detection confirmed known associations between ALI and several drugs, and identified some potentially new signals in children that require further investigation through formal epidemiologic studies. This study shows that EHRs may complement traditional spontaneous reporting systems for signal detection and strengthening.
Pallet N, Chauvet S, Chassé J-F, Vincent M, Avillach P, Levi C, Meas-Yedid V, Olivo-Marin J-C, Nga-Matsogo D, Beaune P, Thervet E, Karras A. Urinary retinol binding protein is a marker of the extent of interstitial kidney fibrosis. PLoS One 2014;9(1):e84708.Abstract
Currently, a non-invasive method to estimate the degree of interstitial fibrosis (IF) in chronic kidney disease is not available in routine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the measurement of urinary low molecular weight (LMW) protein concentrations as a method to determine the extent of IF. The urines specimen from 162 consecutive patients who underwent renal biopsy were used in the analysis. Numerical quantification software based on the colorimetric analysis of fibrous areas was used to assess the percentage IF. Total proteinuria, albuminuria, and the urinary levels of retinol binding protein (RBP), alpha1-microglobulin (α1MG), beta 2-microglobulin (β2MG), transferrin, and IgG immunoglobulins were measured. There was a significant correlation between the degree of IF and the RBP/creatinine (creat) ratio (R2: 0.11, p<0.0001). IF was associated to a lesser extent with urinary β2MG and α1MG; however, there was no association with total proteinuria or high molecular weight (HMW) proteinuria. The correlation between IF and RBP/creat remained significant after adjustment to the estimated glomerular filtration rate, age, body mass index, α1MG, and β2MG. The specificity of the test for diagnosing a fibrosis score of >25% of the parenchyma was 95% when using a threshold of 20 mg/g creat. In conclusion, RBP appears to be a quantitative and non-invasive marker for the independent prediction of the extent of kidney IF. Because methods for the measurement of urinary RBP are available in most clinical chemistry departments, RBP measurement is appealing for implementation in the routine care of patients with chronic kidney disease.